SARS-CoV-2 infections were thought to impact adults more than children, however, surveillance data reveal that newborns under a year old may be more likely than older children to be hospitalised as a result of COVID-19.
When compared to other pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations, the prevalence of hospitalization among children under one-year-old is still disproportionate. Infants under one year old suffer mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms.
From the Electronic Cohort (eESPI) of the Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnancy and Infancy (ESPI) Network to examine hospitalizations and outpatient care cases of babies less than six months that were medically attended for COVID-19.
Over 18,000 newborns who were monitored for six months after delivery and had a COVID-19 incidence of 0.95 percent were born between March 2020 and February 2021. Only 0.1% of the newborn cohort required inpatient care; the majority of these were outpatient or telemedicine consultations.
The incidence rates were impacted by elements such as the mother’s race or ethnicity, the infant’s age, the community transmission, and the mother’s status as a SARS-CoV-2 carrier. Postpartum maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections were linked to greater rates of babies with COVID-19 that required medical attention when compared to COVID-19 diagnosis in mothers during pregnancy or after delivery. According to this, there may be a horizontal SARS-CoV-2 transmission from mother to child as well as a COVID-19 outbreak in the population.
Infants born to Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black mothers had higher incidence rates of medically attended COVID-19, suggesting a greater burden of the disease among minority communities.
Those with COVID-19 exhibited greater underlying medical issues than infants without COVID-19. This may be explained by the fact that often visiting infants with medical issues are subjected to more SARS-CoV-2 testing than newborns who are normally healthy.
The study’s inability to evaluate the influence of SARS-CoV-2 circulation levels and clinical diagnostic techniques on incidence rates, as well as the failure to account for maternal COVID-19 vaccination status in the analysis. Furthermore, because the study was carried out in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the findings cannot be applied to SARS-CoV-2 variants and subvariants.