- Between 1990 and 2018, researchers looked into how food habits evolved throughout the world.
- They discovered that by 2018, diets had gotten somewhat healthier.
- They came to the conclusion that dietary advice needs to be based on regional nutrition statistics.
According to data, poor diets are to blame for around 26% of all deaths that might have been prevented worldwide. There is evidence to support the idea that consuming various foods and nutrients in combination has synergistic and complementary benefits.
Although much of what constitutes an ideal dietary pattern has been developed and confirmed, it is still unknown how typical it is in general consumption throughout the world.
Older adults under 25 were often excluded from earlier research, which was restricted to specific subgroups of nations.
The dietary advice and suggestions might be improved by studies examining the food habits of different nations over a larger age range.
Recent studies looked at dietary trends and patterns among adults and kids from 185 different countries on a global, regional, and national level.
However, the degree of change differed per nation. They discovered that between 1990 and 2018, diets got somewhat healthier.
Generally speaking, as nations have gotten richer, nutritious meals have been more inexpensive.
The diversity of entire foods has risen as a result of food globalization, which is beneficial. But the dynamics of opposing ultra-processed foods replacing natural meals and growing income disparities are leading to unhealthier diets.
Analysis of dietary data globally
They collected information from 1,248 dietary surveys from 188 different nations in total. In the surveys, 64.5% of adults over the age of 20 and 73.9% of children between the ages of 0 and 19 provided data.
The researchers also collected demographic information, such as age, sex, education level, and urban or rural residency, as well as information on individual-level dietary consumption of up to 53 foods, drinks, and nutrients.
The AHEI advises people to eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, polyunsaturated fats, and omega-3 fatty acids while consuming little red and processed meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, and salt.
Finally, the researchers categorized diets on a scale of 0 to 100, with 0 being a bad diet and 100 representing an excellent diet.
They discovered a minor 1.5-point rise in the worldwide AHEI score between 1990 and 2018—from 38.8 to 40.3.
In addition, they discovered that in 2018, just 10 nations—representing less than 1% of the global population—had diet ratings of 50 or higher. Vietnam, Iran, Indonesia, and India were among them, and their average scores were 54.5.
With ratings ranging from 27.1 to 33.5, the lowest-scoring nations were Brazil, Mexico, the United States, and Egypt.
The mean AHEI scores in 2018 for kids and adults, which ranged from 38.2 to 42, were similar.
The AHEI scores of people aged 5 and under and over 75, however, tended to be the highest in the majority of locations.
They added that youngsters generally ate less fruit, non-starchy vegetables, and seafood omega-3 than adults did on a worldwide scale. However, compared to adults, kids also ate more salt and polyunsaturated fats.
The researchers said that in most locations, with the exception of the Middle East, North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa, where they found no differences, higher educational attainment was associated with a higher AHEI score.
Enhancing food selections.
Policies aimed at reducing the consumption of red/processed meat and salt will significantly enhance dietary quality. These nutrients have risen in popularity over time.
In many nations, including Vietnam, greater dietary quality was achieved by consuming less harmful foods and nutrients, such as salt, sugar-sweetened drinks, red/processed meat, and sugar. To enhance dietary quality in the USA, there has to be a simultaneous focus on raising the consumption of healthy foods (fruits, vegetables, and plant oils) while reducing the consumption of harmful foods (sugar-sweetened drinks, salt).
The world’s diets have not much improved. Politicians who frequently dismiss the need for progressive food policies as an excessive market intervention should take note of this. We run the danger of not making any progress in improving diets and the health and environmental effects connected to them for another ten years without clear legislative measures that would empower individuals to adopt healthy and sustainable dietary choices.