Generalizability in health economic evaluation studies: a review and case studies.

Objectives

To examine and further develop the methods used to evaluate and increase the generalizability of economic evaluation studies.

Data sources

Electronic databases.

Review methods

We searched for methodological studies related to the economic evaluation of health care. This included electronic searches of various databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EconLit, and manual searches of key journals. The case studies of an analytical decision model involved highlighting specific features of previously published economic studies related to generalizability and variability related to location. The case study which included the secondary analysis of the cost-effectiveness analysis was based on the secondary analysis of three economic evaluation studies using data from randomized trials.

Results

Frequently listed factors, such as the generation of fluctuations in economic evaluation results between conditions, are the price associated with the asset. In studies based on the analysis of disease data, regression analysis is supported as a way of looking at changes in economic outcomes at all locations. These methods have shown that some of the uses and results change locally. Recent studies have also found, in cost testing, to use a test of heterogeneity similar to that used in medical examinations and trials. The analytical analysis of decision-making has been a key method to generate value propositions from experimental contexts and without judgments. Many models focus on changes in test prices, but obviously, the effective component may also need to be adapted between conditions. There have been weaknesses in some aspects of the complaint and useful case studies. These can prevent decision-makers from articulating the importance of studies and their defined conditions. The curriculum demonstrated the usefulness of multimodal MLM. When analytics are available by location (for example, central or local), MLM can support accurate estimates of uncertainty and cost results, as well as ways to determine profitable performance. A review of the economic studies included in the decision-making process showed that few studies were clear about their decision-makers / authority. Studies and research strive to ensure that your investments pay more for capabilities than for performance. Careful detection is a key way to deal with uncertainty in the form, although few studies have clearly analyzed the differences between conditions. Experimental studies have shown how to work with costs. In particular, on the practical side, the model highlights the division of the program that describes the situation, as well as the planned analysis of the effects related to the treatment, where the latter is expected to change in all areas.

Conclusions

A series of facts and documents are presented that can be expected to produce changes in health care performance throughout the region. Numerous studies have shown differences in volume and cost of use between conditions, but few studies have looked at changes in results. In a cost-effective work study, some studies provide ample evidence for decision makers to demonstrate the need or refine study results in context. Few studies have used mathematical methods to determine differences in results between conditions. In economics-based case studies, many studies have reported making decisions / rights or providing comprehensive information that can be applied. There is great potential to ensure that cost inclusion is necessary for a controlled capacity rather than a therapeutic approach. Methods for examining general differences and variations in economic analysis have been discussed in the literature related to research and the research process. The regression model can provide a system for organizing a variety of disease statistics and data. In particular, MLM has the ability to support cost estimates, which reflect changes in costs and results between conditions and also ensure that the consistency of cost estimates is between the areas to be reviewed immediately. Decision-making models will continue to play an important role in changing the outcome of a profitable study between situations. Recommendations for a more detailed analysis include: developing an evidence system that reflects the variability of the data between locations and allows for greater flexibility in this process; analysis of alternatives to illustrate variations in the analysis of useful data, including a wide range of data; characteristics of many appropriate covariates related to location (eg, hospital) and type of multiple levels; and further evaluation of the performance of economic systems (as an optional model) for cost-effectiveness analysis in conjunction with research data sets and to increase the collection of randomized trials.